modified mercalli intensity scale simulatorbest chris stapleton covers

In case of the Tounggyi earthquake, the MMI is in the range of V-IX within the area covering approximately 500 km from the earthquake location [7]. Earth Homepage | UCMP Since that time, the divisions in these scales have been associated with measurable accelerations of the local ground shaking. (1997) Equations for estimating horizontal response spectra and peak acceleration from western North American earthquakes: a summary of recent work. Poplar Bluff, MO: "Even commuters driving to work felt the severe quake", 24. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, 13, 1-147. Intensity scales date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, before seismographs capable of accurate measurement of ground motion were developed. WSU Press, Seattle. Persons walk unsteadily. 2006-2013 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All rights reserved. Focusing to the other region, many empirical equations have been proposed to relate the MMI with PGA (Figure 3). A measure of earthquake intensity. Based on careful review, there are 10 isoseismal maps of earthquakes within the magnitude range of a 4.6 - 8.0 Richter scale that have been reported over the past 94 year period (1912-2006 AD) (Figure 1 and Table 1). developed in 1931. doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K [access date]. Does the booklet make sense? The projector calculator finds the optimum viewing distance and throw distance for a specific projection size. %ylLo.l,2OF$ZyM37M;I!G1/iDeQzVcW8 LrX5jQgAuFov0h{5Nf~B!V*F_`xsT` >,t2}2\PP'Xs5Z:o#W'NTYkGYx+@-{$o_G+XTP7~YF0es FD LBh6_-';mZL'}A%opo &tlUW49"p@ 'V~uR731k]WAErtJ0PeQU7U'M[.mU|mj^uGi}ad>`DRBT>}^Zj# Fall of stucco and some masonry walls. <>>> Sand and mud shifted horizontally on beaches and. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), Rhodes, B.P., Perez, R., Lamjuan, A. and Kosuwan, S. (2004) Kinematics and tectonic implications of the Mae Kuang Fault, northern Thailand. Cairo, IL: "Most of the buildings in town suffered significant damage; several of the single-family homes were damaged when they slid off their foundations. In this study, the previously reported isoseismal maps are compiled and used to carefully investigate the macroseismic intensity in terms of the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale, based on the engineering ground-motion parameter, as the peak ground acceleration (PGA), inferred from the ground-motion attenuation characteristic of Myanmar. The strongest earthquake ever recorded the one in Chile in 1960 was 8.6 on the Richter magnitude scale but had a moment magnitude of ~9.5. WebFrom the result of this regression ( Figure 2 ), it appears that there is a slight trend of MMI to be a linear function in relationship to the, which can represented by Equation (2) with a standard deviation of 0.33. (Grade Water thrown on banks of canals, rivers, lakes, and so on. (1992) Dependence of strong ground motion on magnitude-distance, site geology and macroseismic intensity for shallow earthquakes in Greece: I, peak horizontal acceleration, velocity and displacement. 5), 3 sheets (cut lengthwise) of white copy paper, 1 sheet (cut lengthwise) of any color construction paper, Variety of crayons, colored pencils, and markers. Pendulum clocks stop, start, change rate. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Damage to weak masonry. Thanks to this earthquake calculator, you can: Check the approximate energy release of an earthquake in energy release equivalents (such as tons of TNT, atomic bomb energies, and volcanic eruptions). Earthquake Intensity - Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) Scale. The correlation coefficient (R2) for the shown linear regression is 0.9681. Based on data from the northeastern United States, seismologists have estimated the following relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and epicentral intensity (Ie): M = 0.62 Ie + 0. Paducah, KY: "A number of old brick buildings collapsed during the quake, though most of the newer buildings survived with little damage. injuries, houses destroyed, and houses damaged, and $ dollage damage estimates. Students can research famous earthquakes on the Internet and discover the Mercalli Scale level for each one. Global Significant Earthquake Database. Black stars are the locations of past earthquakes whereas the ground shaking intensities are illustrated in terms of gradual color of the MMI scale. Ground badly cracked. Branches broken from trees, General panic. Earthquake templates. In case of no shelter, hold on to your head and neck with both arms and hands. Felt by almost everyone, some people awakened. If engineers can develop better technology for predicting the size and force of earthquakes, then cities and communities can work to keep themselves from harm. These are briefly detailed as follows. Log In or Register. Practically for each MMI level, there is more than one value or the source-to-site-distances (i.e., the MMI boundary is not a perfect circle), and consequently the average distance was used. 2015-04-22T00:00:00 -NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging 135-138. It measures the effects of an earthquake at a given location, distinguished from the earthquake's inherent force or strength as measured by seismic magnitude scales (such as the "Mw" magnitude usually reported for an earthquake). Units serve as guides to a particular content or subject area. to as its intensity. Let's assume that you remember an earthquake a couple of years ago, which has a magnitude of 7.1. Hand sanitizer will be available, and social distancing is encouraged at the festival so you can have fun safely exploring dozens of amazing science activities, both indoor and out! ""Many residents ran into the street in panic during the severe shaking, though building damage was mostly restricted to a few cracked chimneys. This is a public event. As the same time, on the 4th December 1930, an earthquake with a Mw of 7.3 was also recorded at Toungoo, central Myanmar, with ground shaking intensities in the range of VIIIX. It can be labeled the "Mercalli Scale." Apart from the fact the scale was intended to be for a specific area only, seismographs from that period weren't as sensitive as they are today they could measure only certain frequencies, meaning that low frequencies were lost, and large earthquakes were underestimated. Quality, Department To calculate the amount of released energy from an earthquake, we've implemented Gutenberg and Richter's equation in this earthquake calculator: The most powerful earthquake ever recorded happened in Chile in 1960. Tell students to draw a picture having to do with an earthquake or the Mercalli Scale. Landslides. Wholesale destruction. However, it is recognized that there is a significant level of uncertainty in estimating ground motions (i.e., PGA) from the existing isoseismal maps by this process. =\YUgeFY#r\Qsa7`og:_:U7h|3o bR9c[O?qCvm(3yoQ^JJ[6t^C5b&jk$ox*o u&l[j}psjs.vBt/T@U_t/GONY|LP +:i.&TpN;0gM[URRY" Unstable objects overturned. Although it confounds many variables, Then drop, cover, and hold on, as objects may be thrown at you from the side. The intensity scale consists of a series of certain key responses such Macroseismic intensity, the descriptive reporting format of earthquake ground shaking, is useful to provide information about the response of structures, quality and type of construction, including the variation of geological conditions in specific areas. A variety of hazards result from natural processes (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions). California's Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 was a 7.1. After this activity, students should be able to: Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok. The European (MSK) scale of 12 grades is similar to the abridged version of the Mercalli. How they think engineers and scientists measure earthquake damage? WebThe Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is commonly used in the United States by seismologists seeking information on the severity of earthquake effects. to the size of seismic waves produced during a quake. The MSK scale is the most recent, has 12 values that approximate but are not the same the Modified Mercalli values, and is used extensively in Europe.Intensity values can be correlated with other measures of ground motion, such as displacement, velocity and acceleration. Copyright Numerous intensity scales have been developed over Bloomington, IN 47405-7101 Many poor buildings damaged, Significant damage. ", 8. New Madrid, MO: "A number of residents noted 'geysers of mud' ejected from the levees adjacent to the Mississippi. This relationship, if substantiated, will be particularly useful in real-time applications for damage prediction or engineering parameter determination for earthquake ground shaking posed in or nearby to Myanmar. The magnitude does not depend on where the measurement is made. A number of different intensity scales have been set up during the past century and applied to both current and ancient destructive earthquakes. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Here is a photograph of Giuseppe Mercalli, the inventor of The most important rules to remember are drop, cover, and hold on: Drop to the ground onto your hands and knees. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. z/76 E1(S=C50R6*C?dzy}5n`u%]|QJ. And that's it! In this study, it is attempted to develop the relationship between macroseismic intensity, in terms of the MMI scale, and the engineering ground-motion parameter, in terms of the PGA. Magnitude scales, like the moment magnitude, measure the size of the earthquake at its source. Kaka, S. and Atkinson, G. (2004) Relationships between instrumental intensity and ground motion parameters in eastern North America. endobj China, Iran, and Turkey lead in the category of the most catastrophic earthquakes (damages, fatalities, etc.). Thus, all values of PGA in each MMI are averaged statistically. Slight to moderate damage in well-built, ordinary structures. That's because the first approximations are based on body-wave and surface-wave scales, as the calculation of the moment magnitude is more complicated. They make a model of a seismographa measuring device that records an earthquake on a seismogram. Often, several slightly different magnitudes are reported for an earthquake. the maps scale of 100 km = 2.1 cm on your ruler, so if you had a measured distance from one station of This is a complete binder of activities for Grades K-6. Proceedings of the 5th World Conference Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, 13-18 January 1969. Indianapolis, IN: . Hold on to your shelter with one hand until the shaking stops. Richter, C.F. Students learn about the types of seismic waves produced by earthquakes and how they move through the Earth. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Okamoto, S. (1973) Introduction to earthquake engineering. Furniture broken. Felt by very few people; barely noticeable. severe damage to poorly built structures. Testing Model Villages in Big Waves, Seismic Waves: How Earthquakes Move Through the Earth. put into trial operation in Ankara, Turkey. ", 12. Therefore, the seismic building code of Myanmar should be modified in order to reduce future hazards arising from earthquakes. on the date and time of occurrence, latitude and longitude, focal depth, magnitude, Small objects moved. Thus, the Mercalli scale describes how the earthquake affected a given location, and a range of Mercalli intensity values are assigned for the same earthquake, assuming it affected not just one area. Understand why engineers develop rating scales for earthquakes. The released energy is 31622776601684 J, and the equivalent of such energy is: 0.0000028 of the most massive earthquake recorded, Chile '60 . Felt by a few people, especially on the upper floors. With the use of an intensity scale, it is possible to summarize such data for an earthquake by constructing isoseismal curves, which are lines that connect points of equal intensity. List some famous earthquakes and their Richter Scale measurements. Khin, A. and Win, K. (1968) Preliminary studies of the paleogeography of Burma during the Cenozoic. WebThe most widely used scale is the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale (MMI scale). and damage. Google It occurred in the afternoon, lasted for 10 minutes, and caused tsunamis that affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and the Aleutian Islands. The intensities experienced at different sites depend primarily on the distance from the source to each site. In summary, the data of macroseismic intensity obtained from these 10 collected isoseismal maps have a MMI level in the range of II-IX and so cover almost all of the standard MMI levels (i.e., I-XII), to allow an investigation into the relationship between the MMI and PGA. Please understand that by attending and participating you are granting IU permission to use your image in photographs and videos to promote Science Fest and other outreach activities in the future. Springfield, MO: "Doors and windows rattled, but no damage reported.". Return to: Potential to Kinetic | Dynamic the amount of movement or energy released. Motions up to an intensity VIII+ in the MM Scale can be. Agency, FEMA 159, April 1999, published by the National Science Using one arm, cover your head and neck. Both of these were generated by the Ranong [9] and Mae Tha [11] Fault Zones, which represent the MMI characteristics in the southern and eastern part of Myanmar, respectively. The magnitudes required in equation (1) and the earthquake locations for measuring the source-to-site-distances are those cited in previous reports and are detailed in Table 1. Warning, earthquake! The Modified Mercalli intensity scale (MM, MMI, or MCS), developed from Giuseppe Mercalli's Mercalli intensity scale of 1902, is a seismic intensity scale used for measuring the intensity of shaking produced by an earthquake. Tell students to label and illustrate the cover. If you're interested in the latest earthquakes in your region or only the most recent earthquakes (as they are happening all the time! It describes the damage left by an earthquake, not the actual force of the earthquake. Official websites use .gov Small objects are displaced or upset. 36 Questions from Britannicas Most Popular Science Quizzes. The database provides information and Wenbin, S. (2010) Seismic hazard maps of Yangon and its surrounding areas. W.H. Stay inside until the shaking stops. If there were complete symmetry about the vertical through the earthquakes focus, isoseismals would be circles with the epicentre (the point at the surface of the Earth immediately above where the earthquake originated) as the centre. From Figure 2, it is revealed that the series of MMIPGA calibration vary in individual MMI range. Le Dain, A.Y., Tapponnier, P. and Molnar, P. (1984) Active faulting and tectonics of Burma and surrounding regions. An earthquake has one magnitude. Engineering to Prevent Natural Disasters: Save Our City! from publication: Damage Observations Following the Mw 7.8 2016 Kaikoura ]sgJ;oYQqmt|Wg4n^~9s Remember that for each unit increase in magnitude: So, for example, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7 releases over 1000 times more energy than a magnitude 5 earthquake. at least one of the following criteria: caused deaths, caused moderate damage (approximately Can you think of any examples? Felt by nearly everyone. Changes in flow or temperature of springs and wells. Intensity depends, however, in a complicated way not only on ground accelerations but also on the periods and other features of seismic waves, the distance of the measuring point from the source, and the local geologic structure. Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences. Students learn about the Mercalli Scale for rating earthquakes.copyrightCopyright Did you notice that 3 out of the 12 most powerful earthquakes were in Chile? Common Alerting Protocol Do you agree with this alignment? Single copies of this publication may be obtained ", 18. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), Make one Mercalli Scale booklet as an example by following steps 2 5 below. Furniture moves or overturns. Sleepers awaken. Nowadays, the moment magnitude scale is the most commonly used system. Landslides. We acknowledged thoughtful comments and suggestions by the Editor-In-Chief and anonymous reviewers which enhanced the quality of this manuscript significantly. Cite as: National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Ground cracked noticeably. in Los Angeles. Rails bent slightly, Near total damage. Pairs Check/Sharing with the Community: Have students share their booklets with a partner or the person next to them. Humans cannot eliminate the hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts. Financial support is acknowledged from the Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University through the Thai Government Stimulus Package 2 (TKK2555: PERFECTA); The National Research University Project of CHE; and the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund (Project Code CC508B). Can they think of examples where something has a rating or a level? Empirical relationships between the macroseismic intensity and the groundmotion parameters (peak ground acceleration [PGA], peak ground velocity [PGV]) for western China are derived in this study. Many old wooden buildings have collapsed into the street, and virtually all of the brick buildings are destroyed. from FEMA at no cost by calling 1-800-480-2520. Some heavy furniture moved, some plaster falls. This It is influenced by the amount of kinetic energy released, the May feel like a heavy truck passing by. It also triggered numerous landslides, floods, and even volcanic eruptions. A new relationship between macroseismic intensity and engineering ground-motion parameter is contributed for the Myanmar region by comparing the MMI gathered from 10 isoseismal maps with the inferred PGA. Both of these were generated by the Sagiang Fault Zone with reported MMIs of up to IX and spread out far away from the source into Thailand (Figure 1). Total damage. Empirically, the macroseismic intensity is most frequently related to the PGA because this engineering ground-motion parameter is the most commonly correlated parameter to structural damage and it is important for seismic resistant structure design [12]. Do you know that the shockwave originated from the detonation of the Tsar Bomba circled the world three times, touching at the antipodal point of the explosion and "bouncing" back? fine for parking in handicap spot in ohio,

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